Monday, 16 July 2012

The Effects And Implications Of Six Different Ergogenic Aids Used For Exercise And Sports Performance


Ergogenic aids
Ergogenic Aids are any external influences which can positively affect physical or mental performance.
These include mechanical aids, pharmacological aids, physiological aids, nutritional aids, and psychological aids. Ergogenic aids may directly influence the physiological capacity of a particular body system and reduce physiological constraints, thus improving performance. They may also speed up recovery after training or competition.

The rewards for winning are so great that athletes feel they need an advantage. They may be tempted to use them to speed recovery from injury. They may believe that ‘everybody else is doing it’. They lack the physical and psychological attributes to get to the top without the use of an ergogenic aid. They may not be aware that they are actually using an aid, as control over their substances may be given to their coach.

Anabolic steroids
Steroids can be taken either orally or by injection and are used in a cyclical pattern with 6-12 weeks of heavy use followed by periods of between 1 and 12 months drug-free. During the heavy use period a pyramid system is usually followed where a gradual increase in daily dose reaches a peak and is then reversed. However lately other methods of delivery have been used, including tablets, nasal sprays, skin patches, and creams.

Anabolic steroids are Class C drugs to be sold only by pharmacists with a doctor's prescription. It's legal to possess or import steroids as long as they're in the form of a medicinal product for personal use. But possession or importing with intent to supply is illegal and could lead to 14 years in prison and an unlimited fine.

Many sporting organisations have banned the use of certain steroids. These organisations carry out tests for the banned steroids. If someone tests positive they can be disqualified from competing for certain periods of time, or even banned for life

Anabolic Steroids have been used as a hormone replacement to treat things such as HIV, severe cases of osteoporosis, muscular dystrophy, delayed puberty, Angioneurotic edema, which is the swelling in the deep layers of the skin, often due to the body mistakenly initiating an allergic reaction, some forms of anemia, Hypogonadism, which is the defect of function of the testes or ovaries and Klinefelter’s syndrome, which is also known as XXY syndrome, where a male has an additional X chromosome. This results in reduced fertility

Steroids are most commonly used by athletes involved in power sports, these are sports like throwing and sprinting events and weight lifting. Field sports such as American Football and Rugby have also shown a high use of anabolic steroids and also body builders have a high use of steroids. The benefits of using anabolic steroids are an increased bulk in muscle, increased muscle strength, faster muscle recovery and reduced muscle catabolism which is the breakdown of muscle following intense exercise. This aids recovery and muscle development.    

Side effects from the use of steroids are extremely common. Most side effects are reversible once the athlete stops using them, although serious long term side effects and even death have occurred as a direct result of steroid use. Some of the side effects are decreased sperm production and sex drive, increased aggression and mood swings, liver disorders, acne, baldness, high blood pressure, raised cholesterol,  menstrual irregularities (in women), deepening of the voice, reduced immunity, possible development of tumours, Hirsuitism, which is excessive hair growth occurring in females which follows the pattern of male hair growth. Gynecomastia which is the development of over-sized mammary glands in males. For adolescent athletes, steroid use may cause the growth plates in long bones to close faster than usual, which can result in reduced height.

If steroids are over used it can cause heart, liver, and immune system problems. Blood cholesterol levels often increase because steroid use changes how sugars and fats are handled. This and increased blood pressure can lead to the early development of heart disease, which can increase the risk of heart attacks and strokes. Tendons and ligaments may not strengthen at the same rate the muscle tissue develops. As a result, these tissues appear to be injured more often among steroid users.

Growth hormone
Human Growth hormone is also sometimes known as somatotrophic hormone or somatotrophin. It is produced by the pituitary gland and is essential for normal growth and development. The growth hormone is anabolic, meaning it accelerates protein synthesis and also aids the metabolism of fat stores.
The uses of human growth hormone are limited in a medical setting. They are used for Dwarfism and replacement therapy in growth-deficient children, kidney failure, Turner's syndrome which is a chromosomal condition where the second X sex chromosome in females is either absent or deformed. This causes growth and development problems and 

HIV  
Human growth hormone can effect in performance. Athletes involved in powerful, strength demanding sports and events like American football weight lifting, rugby and body building are most likely to use human growth hormone due to its anabolic effect. It can increase muscle mass, decrease fat stores and accelerate muscle recover.
However many small studies have shown no increases in muscle size or strength following injection with human growth hormone. So body-builders and weight-lifters tend to combine growth hormone and anabolic steroids.
Side effects of Human Growth Hormone can be very serious. These include cardiac failure, Arthritis, Diabetes, impotence, Gigantism in younger athletes which refers to abnormally excessive growth in height, considerably above average, Acromegaly in adult athletes which is a condition where the pituitary gland produces too much human growth hormone resulting in the growth and swelling of body parts, typically hands, feet, nose but can progress to brow and jaw protrusion and swelling of internal organs, Hypothyroidism which is low production of the thyroid hormone which disrupts metabolic rate and protein production, Cardiomyopathy which is a  disease of the cardiac muscle, increasing the risk of arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death, Hypercholesterolemia which is presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood, Ischemic heart disease which is a lack of blood to the heart often due to coronary artery disease, Myopathies which is neuromuscular diseases affecting the function of muscle fibres, Osteoporosis and Menstrual irregularities in women

Creatine
Creatine is both made by the body from the amino acids arginine, glycine and methionine and gained from the diet. It occurs naturally in meats and fish. An athlete who is a big meat eater may have in his muscle five grams of creatine per kilogram of muscle, which is near the upper limit. This same athlete must take in approximately 2.5g of creatine per day to replace the natural degradation of creatine that takes place each day.

Creatine supplements are used by athletes, bodybuilders, wrestlers, sprinters, and others who wish to gain muscle mass, typically consuming 2 to 3 times the amount that could be obtained from a very high protein diet. The Mayo Clinic states that creatine has been associated with asthmatic symptoms and warns against consumption by persons with known allergies.


Creatine supplementation was known to affect hydration status and heat tolerance and lead to muscle cramping and diarrhea, recent studies have shown these concerns to be unfounded.  There are reports of kidney damage with creatine use, such as interstitial nephritis; patients with kidney disease should avoid use of this supplement. liver function may be altered, and caution is advised in those with underlying liver disease although studies have shown no impact on kidney or liver function from oral creatine supplementation. In 2004 the European Food Safety Authority published a record which stated that oral long term intake of 3g pure creatine per day is risk free. The reports of damage to the kidneys by creatine supplementation have been scientifically refuted.

Caffeine
Caffeine is a naturally occurring substance which is found in over 60 different plants. It is the most commonly used drug in the world as it is found in coffee, tea, chocolate and many carbonated and energy drinks. It is often used by athletes as a pre-workout stimulant and is found in many products designed to aid in fat loss.

During periods of 30-120 minutes caffeine has been shown to produce the following benefits improved muscle contractibility, increased time to exhaustion, improved concentration, Enhanced alertness, reduced fatigue In the short-term under 30 minutes caffeine can have a detrimental effect on some aspects of performance, for example fine motor control and technique due to over arousal.

The side effects to caffeine are abdominal pain, diarrhoea, dehydration, restlessness, anxiety and irritability, headaches, high blood pressure, interference with recovery and sleep patterns, palpitations and increased muscle tension.  

Blood doping
Artificial Oxygen carriers are the only form of blood doping which have a medical use. They were developed for use in emergencies when there is no time for determining and cross matching a patient’s blood type for transfusion, when there is a high risk of infection, or when no blood is available.

Blood doping is most commonly used by endurance athletes, such as distance runners, skiers and cyclists. By increasing the number of red blood cells within the blood, higher volumes of the protein haemoglobin are present. Haemoglobin binds to and carries Oxygen from the lungs, to the muscles where it can be used for aerobic respiration. Blood doping therefore allows extra Oxygen to be transported to the working muscles, resulting in a higher level of performance, without the use of the anaerobic energy systems. Studies have shown that blood doping can improve the performance of endurance athletes.

The side effects of blood doping and which can occur in any form of blood doping are increased blood viscosity which is thickness of the blood, heart attack, Pulmonary embolism which is a blockage, which can be fat, air or a blood clot, of the pulmonary artery, Cerebral embolism which is a blockage formed elsewhere in the body, which becomes lodged in an artery within or leading to the brain, stroke, infections, homologous transfusions are prone to further side effects, allergic reaction, risk of blood-borne diseases hepatitis C, B and HIV.

Altitude training
At altitude there is reduced air resistance suggesting an advantage in activities involving speed like sprints. The force of gravity is reduced suggesting an advantage where relative and maximum strength is critical. Some of the immediate effects of exposure to altitude are increased breathing rate, increased heart rate, giddiness, nausea, headache, sleeplessness and decrease in VO2 max.


For every 300 metres above 1000 metres VO2max decreases by approximately 2.6%. The total effect of these adjustments is a reduction of work capacity.


The long term effects of continued exposure to altitude include are increased erythrocyte volume, increased haemoglobin volume and concentration, increased blood viscosity, increased capillarisation, continued lower V02max, decreased lactic acid tolerance and reduced stroke volume. For short term training at altitude drawbacks such as are poor facilities, strange diet, different surroundings and homesickness. On return from altitude training performances at sea level appear to peak between the 19th and 21st day and then again between 36 days and 48 days performance improves.


Data collected from a variety of elite endurance athletes from a variety of sports have shown that training at altitudes between 1.8km and 3km promotes improvement in endurance based activities made at sea level. At these altitudes, it can take an athlete up to three weeks to acclimatise.


Glycogen loading 
Glycogen loading is also known as carbohydrate loading. Carbohydrate loading is a fuelling strategy designed to extend endurance in athletes.
 
If you are exercising at a steady pace and intensity, carbohydrate loading will increase your endurance by about 20%. If you typically can run 20 miles before exhaustion, with glycogen stores you may be able to extend that to 24 miles. If you take part in an event like a cycling race or a marathon, carbohydrate loading may improve your time by 2-3%.

Carbohydrate loading should be considered for competitive endurance events that last for 90 minutes or more. Because this is about the length of time it takes for typical stores of muscle glycogen to begin to run low. For events shorter than this, and especially for sprinting events, glycogen depletion isn't really a fatigue factor, and so carbohydrate loading doesn’t improve your performance for this sport.

Soccer, basketball, hockey, and football are all examples of team sports where the exercise is often high intensity and the length of the sports can exceed 90 minutes. These sports can burn glycogen at a high rate, and if played long enough, can result in muscle glycogen depletion and fatigue. Performance could potentially be improved by muscle glycogen stores. However the benefit will likely vary based on the position you play. For example point guards in basketball or running backs in football are more likely to deplete muscle glycogen stores, and may benefit more from carbohydrate loading than other positions in these sports.

Beta blockers
Beta-blockers used to treat high blood pressure, angina which is chest pain caused by restricted blood flow to the heart, heart failure which is where the heart does not pump blood around the body effectively, atrial fibrillation which is a irregular heartbeat and heart attacks. Less commonly, beta-blockers are used to prevent migraines, treat overactive thyroid, treat anxiety conditions, treat tremor, and treat glaucoma
There are several types of beta-blocker and each has its own characteristics. The type prescribed for you will depend on your condition. They are all equally effective.

Beta-blockers work by blocking the release of noradrenaline in certain parts of the body.
Noradrenaline is a chemical released by nerves when they are stimulated. The noradrenaline passes messages to other parts of the body, such as the muscles, blood vessels and heart.
This means that beta-blockers can decrease the activity of your heart. Beta blockers decrease anxiety, have a positive effect on fine motor control but a negative effect on aerobic capacity.


Amphetamines
Amphetamines are medically prescribed for conditions such as low blood pressure, asthma, sleep disorders, migraine and slimming pills
Amphetamines usually come in a powder form or tablets. The powder has often been heavily mixed with other powders such as glucose, baby milk, laxatives or other drugs, and its purity may be low. Amphetamines may be known as speed, uppers, dexies, whizzes or billy whizz, whites, and many other names. A similar but more powerful type of the drug is methamphetamine, often known as crystal meth in its powder form or glass and ice in its crystal form.
Amphetamines are usually taken by snorting the powder into the nose, rubbing it on the gums or swallowing the tablets. As base has an unpleasant taste it may be wrapped in a cigarette paper and swallowed, this is known as a speed bomb. Some users inject the drug. Methamphetamine crystals may be smoked, using a glass pipe.
Amphetamines are a Class B illegal drug but Class A if prepared for injection with severe penalties for possession and sale.
Amphetamines increase levels of the neurotransmitters dopamine and noradrenaline in the brain, and prevent these chemicals from being recycled. This leads to their stimulant effects, making people feel more lively, awake, energetic and confident. Improved focus, concentration and wakefulness mean they are still useful treatments for narcolepsy or hyperactivity. The drug will be more intense if injected and ability to stay awake for hours without feeling tired.
The drugs have powerful physical effects too increasing breathing, heart rate and temperature, dilating the pupils and suppressing the appetite. When amphetamines are snorted they produce effects within three to twenty minutes with effects lasting for up to about eight hours. As the drug wears off, the person may become anxious, irritable and restless, but even when they feel desperate for sleep the drug may continue to keep them awake. Finally, exhaustion and often intense mood swings kick in.
The physical effects can be particularly dangerous if someone has pre existing problems with their heart or blood pressure with palpitations and a risk of abnormal heart rhythms and even a heart attack. There may also be low blood pressure, nausea, headache, twitching and tremor. In the long term, convulsions, coma and even death can occur. Amphetamines are particularly risky if taken with alcohol, and those who inject the drugs are at risk of infections such as HIV or hepatitis if they share needles.
“Steroids can be taken either orally or by injection and are used in a cyclical pattern with 6-12 weeks of heavy use followed by periods of between 1 and 12 months drug-free. During the heavy use period a pyramid system is usually followed where a gradual increase in daily dose reaches a peak and is then reversed. However lately other methods of delivery have been used, including tablets, nasal sprays, skin patches, and creams.” This shows anabolic steroids can be taken by injection or orally and that they have to be used in a cycle pattern, where they are used heavily for 6 to 12 weeks which are then followed by periods of between 1 and 12 months drug free. It shows that during the heavy period a pyramid system is followed where there is a gradual increase in daily dose which reaches a peak and is then reversed. It also shows that in recent times different methods have been used like tablets, nasal sprays, skin patches and cream.   

“Steroids are most commonly used by athletes involved in power sports, these are sports like throwing and sprinting events and weight lifting. Field sports such as American Football and Rugby have also shown a high use of anabolic steroids and also body builders have a high use of steroids. The benefits of using anabolic steroids are an increased bulk in muscle, increased muscle strength, faster muscle recovery and reduced muscle catabolism which is the breakdown of muscle following intense exercise. This aids recovery and muscle development.”  This shows steroids are most commonly used by athletes that are involved in sports that power, strength and speed is important which include sports like throwing and sprinting events and weight lifting. It shows the benefits of steroids are that it increases muscle bulk, strength and helps you recover much faster.    

“Anabolic steroids are Class C drugs to be sold only by pharmacists with a doctor's prescription. It's legal to possess or import steroids as long as they're in the form of a medicinal product for personal use. But possession or importing with intent to supply (which includes giving them to friends) is illegal and could lead to 14 years in prison and an unlimited fine.” This shows steroids are a class c drug that can only be sold by pharmacists with a doctor’s prescription. It shows that steroids are illegal if their you’re in your possession with the intent to supply.  

“Many sporting organisations have banned the use of certain steroids. These organisations carry out tests for the banned steroids. If someone tests positive they can be disqualified from competing for certain periods of time, or even banned for life” this shows that a lot of sporting organisations have banned the use of steroids, the organisations carry out tests for the banned steroids and if someone is test positive that can be disqualified from competing for certain periods of time or banned for life.

“Human growth hormone can effect in performance. Athletes involved in powerful, strength demanding sports and events like American football weight lifting, rugby and body building are most likely to use human growth hormone due to its anabolic effect. It can increase muscle mass, decrease fat stores and accelerate muscle recover.” This shows that human growth hormone can effect performance and that athletes involved in sports that involve power and strength are more likely to use human growth hormone due to its anabolic effect. It shows that human growth hormone can increase muscle mass, decrease fat stores and accelerate muscle recover.   

“However many small studies have shown no increases in muscle size or strength following injection with human growth hormone. So body-builders and weight-lifters tend to combine growth hormone and anabolic steroids.” This shows that many small studies have shown no increase in muscle size or strength following injection with human growth hormone. It shows that body builders and weight lifters tend to combine the human growth hormone with anabolic steroids.

“Creatine is both made by the body from the amino acids arginine, glycine and methionine and gained from the diet. It occurs naturally in meats and fish. An athlete who is a big meat eater may have in his muscle five grams of creatine per kilogram of muscle, which is near the upper limit. This same athlete must take in approximately 2.5g of creatine per day to replace the natural degradation of creatine that takes place each day.” This shows that creatine is made up form amino acids and gained from your diet. It shows that creatine is naturally in meats and fish and shows that big meat eaters may have five grams of creatine per kilogram of muscle which is near the upper limit. However this same athlete must take in 2.5g creatine per day to replace the natural degradation of creratine that takes place each day.


“If you were to survey athletes you would find that there would be a wide variation in creatine content with some athletes having as little as three grams per kilogram of muscle, especially vegetarians and those people who are less active in sport. Those with low creatine content may be at a disadvantage since creatine has been described as the oil of the muscle engine that makes the muscle work more efficiently. Since very few athletes are at the top end of the scale (4.5-5g/kg) supplementation will help to increase the creatine content in the muscles.” This shows that a lot of athletes don’t get enough creatine and vegetarians and people who are less active will also have a lower level of creatine. It also shows that athletes with a low calorie count may be at disadvantage since creatine has been described as the oil of the muscle engine that makes the muscle work more efficiently. 

“Creatine Ethyl Ester is a new form of creatine, marketed as being superior to creatine monohydrate. Although this is not proven, it seems to cause less bloating, and be more tolerable for some people.” This shows that creatine ethyl ester is a new form of creatine and is marketed as being superior to creatine monohydrate however this is not proven. It shows that this type of creatine is seemed to cause less bloating and be more tolerable for some people.

“Up until 2004 caffeine was on the prohibited substances list, with athletes being limited to a urine level below 12 micrograms per millilitre. This is equivalent to 6-8 cups of coffee (600-800mg). Performance enhancing effects have since been proven at a much lower intake, between 2-4 cups of coffee (200-400mg).” This shows up until 2004 caffeine was on the prohibited substances list, with athletes being limited to a urine level below 12 micrograms per millilitre, this equivalent to 6-8 cups of coffee. It also shows performance enhancing effects have since been proven at a much lower intake, between 2-4 cups of coffee.

“WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) are currently monitoring the usage of caffeine by athletes, as it has been suggested that since it was removed from the prohibited list, its use has dramatically increased. If this is the case, WADA must decide whether to reinstate the ban and if the permitted threshold should be lowered. Of course the other option is to put a complete ban on the use of caffeine, this would however be impossible due to caffeine staying in the system up to 48 hours. Therefore an athlete would not be able to have a cup of coffee or an energy drink within 48 hours of a competition. Random drug testing makes this even less feasible.” This shows that WADA are currently monitoring the usage of caffeine by athletes as it has been suggested that since it was removed from the prohibited list its used has increased a lot. It also shows that WADA could bring the ban back into place and also shows that a complete ban cannot be placed because a athlete will not be able to have a energy drink within 48 hours of a completion because caffeine stays in the system for that long.

“During periods of 30-120 minutes caffeine has been shown to produce the following benefits improved muscle contractibility, increased time to exhaustion, improved concentration, Enhanced alertness, reduced fatigue. In the short-term under 30 minutes caffeine can have a detrimental effect on some aspects of performance, for example fine motor control and technique due to over arousal.” This shows that during 30 and 120 minutes caffeine improves muscle contractions, increased time to exhaustion, improved concentration, enhanced alertness, reduced fatigue. It also shows that in short term under 20 minutes caffeine can have an effect performance for example fine motor control and technique due to over arousal.

“Blood doping is defined by WADA (World Anti-Doping Agency) as the misuse of techniques and/or substances to increases ones red blood cell count. Most commonly this involves the removal of two units (approximately 2 pints!) of the athletes blood several weeks prior to competition. The blood is then frozen until 1-2 days before the competition, when it is thawed and injected back into the athlete. This is known as autologous blood doping. Homologous doping is the injection of fresh blood, removed from a second person, straight into the athlete.” This shows that blood doping is defined as WADA as the misuse of techniques and substances to increase a person red blood cell count. This involves the removal of two pints of an athlete’s blood several weeks prior to competition. This also shows the blood is then frozen until 1 or 2 days before the competition when it is thawed and injected back into the athlete. This is known as autologous blood doping. It also shows homologous doping is injected of fresh blood removed from a second person straight into an athlete.   

“A second method of blood doping involves the use of artificial oxygen carriers. Hemoglobin oxygen carriers (HBOC's) and Perfluorocarbons (PFC's) are chemicals or purified proteins which have the ability to carry oxygen. They have been developed for therapeutic use, however are now being misused as performance enhancer's.” This shows a second method of blood doping involves the use of artificial oxygen carriers. It also shows that haemoglobin oxygen carries and perfluorocarbons are chemicals or purified proteins which have the ability to carry oxygen also they have been developed for therapeutic use, however are now being misused as performance enhancers.  

Tests were introduced in 2004 which are capable of detecting the use of homologous transfusions and the use of artificial oxygen carriers. Although a suitable test has not yet been developed to detect autologous blood doping.” This shows that tests were introduced in 2004 which were cable of detecting the use of homologous transfusions and the use of artificial oxygen carriers. It always shows that a suitable test has not been developed to detect autologous blood doping.                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                                          
“After the development of EPO, the use of blood doping fell considerably, however since the development of a test for EPO detection and the lack of testing for autologous doping, it is again on the rise.” This shows that after the development of EPO the use of by blood doping fell considerably. However it also shows that since that development of a test for EPO detection and the lack of testing for autologous doping it is now rising again.  

“The practice of blood doping involved athletes taking a certain amount of blood out of their systems, and then, later, when their bodies had made up for the blood taken out, injected back into their systems after the blood being kept in a refrigerated state in the meantime. This practice would increase red blood cell count allowing blood doping to improve performance in sports requiring high levels of aerobic activity. It was a dangerous practice though and risks of infection and heart trouble were relatively high, as well as very inconvenient having to keep the blood stored in a fridge. In the modern era blood doping has largely been replaced by the use of the drug Erythropoietin (EPO).”
“For every 300 metres above 1000 metres VO2max decreases by approximately 2.6%. The total effect of these adjustments is a reduction of work capacity.” This shows for every 300 meters above 1000 meters V02max decreases by approximately 2.6% the total effect of the adjustments is a reduction of work capacity.


“Data collected from a variety of elite endurance athletes from a variety of sports have shown that training at altitudes between 1.8km and 3km promotes improvement in endurance based activities made at sea level. At these altitudes, it can take an athlete up to three weeks to acclimatise.” This shows that data was collected by a variety of athletes from a variety of sports and has shows that training at altitudes between 1.8km and 3km promotes improvement in endurance based activities made at sea level. It shows at altitudes it can take an athlete up to three weeks to acclimatise.


“High altitude may result in a drop of your VO2max. The magnitude of this decline is approx. 5 to 7% per 1000 metres (Bernhard 1978). To overcome this effect a "live high train low" model was developed where athletes slept at an altitude of 2500 metres but trained at sea level (Levine 1991).” This shows that high altitude may result in a drop of your VO2max. It shows that the magnitude of this decline is approx 5 to 7% per 1000 meters. It shows to overcome this effect a live high train low model was developed where athletes slept at an altitude of 2500 meters but trained at sea level. 


“Beta-blockers used to treat high blood pressure, angina which is chest pain caused by restricted blood flow to the heart, heart failure which is where the heart does not pump blood around the body effectively, atrial fibrillation which is a irregular heartbeat and heart attacks. Less commonly, beta-blockers are used to prevent migraines, treat overactive thyroid, treat anxiety conditions, treat tremor, and treat glaucoma
There are several types of beta-blocker and each has its own characteristics. The type prescribed for you will depend on your condition. They are all equally effective.” This shows beta blockers are used to treat high blood pressure, angina, heart failure, atrial fibrillation and heart attacks. It also shows that less commonly beta blockers are used to prevent migraines, overactive thyroid, anxiety conditions, tremors and glaucoma. It also shows that there are several types of beta blocker and each has its own characteristics. 

“Beta-blockers work by blocking the release of noradrenaline in certain parts of the body.
Noradrenaline is a chemical released by nerves when they are stimulated. The noradrenaline passes messages to other parts of the body, such as the muscles, blood vessels and heart.
This means that beta-blockers can decrease the activity of your heart. Beta blockers decrease anxiety, have a positive effect on fine motor control but a negative effect on aerobic capacity.” This shows that beta blockers work by blocking the release of noradrenalinein certain parts of the body. it shows that the noradrenalinein passes messages to other body parts of the body like the muscles, blood vessels and heart. It shows that beta blockers can decrease the activity of your heart can decrease anxiety and have a positive effect on fine motor control but a negative effect on aerobic capacity.

“Amphetamines are powerful central nervous stimulants which have been abused widely in the past to boost athletic performance. However, they can increase body temperature and cause dehydration and were linked to the deaths of athletes such as Tommy Simpson, a cyclist from Great Britain. They are a controlled drug and banned by all international sporting bodies.” This shows that amphetamines are very powerful central nervous stimulants which have been abused widely in the past to athletic performance. It shows they can increase body temperature and cause dehydration and were linked to deaths of athletes. It shows that amphetamines are a controlled drug and banned by all international sporting bodies. 

“Glycogen is stored in muscle with water. That means that if you've effectively supercompensated, you'll be a bit heavier because of the extra water you're carrying. Full glycogen loading can lead to an increase in body weight of around 4 lbs (2 kg). But don't worry, the weight gain is temporary — it will only last as long as glycogen stores are supercompensated. That said, give some thought to whether an increase in body weight will put you at a disadvantage during competition.” This shows that glycogen is stored in muscle with water which means that you will put on a bit of weight but the weight gained is only temporary it will only last as long as the glycogen stores are supercompensated. 

“If the time between when you complete carbohydrate loading and your competition is a few days, not to worry, your stores will remain supercompensated as long as you continue to eat a high-carbohydrate diet and you rest or engage in no more than light training. In fact, elevated storage levels can be maintained for as long as five days, although a detraining effect is likely to occur if you miss training for this long. The key point is that if a solid day or two of travel is needed to get you to your event venue, and during that time access to extra carbohydrates will be limited, you can complete your carbohydrate loading the day before travel and not lose any of the performance benefit.”
This shows that your glycogen stores will remain supercompensated as long as you eat a high carbohydrate diet and you rest or engage in more than light training. Also elevated storage levels can be maintained for as long as five days.

“Investigations at the University of Nottingham show that five days of creatine supplementation can boost muscle power and performance during intense strength training (Unknown 1993). In the Nottingham study, 12 athletes carried out five bouts of 30 maximal contractions of the quadriceps muscles before and after five days of placebo or creatine ingestion. The creatine was consumed in five-gram doses, four times per day (20 grams total per day). After the five days, the placebo-group athletes achieved no gains in muscle power, but creatine ingesters boosted muscle strength considerably during all five bouts of exercise.” This shows that five days of creatine supplementation can boost muscle power and performance during intense strength training. It also shows that creatine was tested on by 12 athletes after five days the athletes gained no muscle power but creatine boosted muscle strength considerably during all five bouts of exercise.


“Soccer, basketball, hockey, and football are all examples of team sports where the exercise is often high intensity and the length of the sports can exceed 90 minutes. These sports can burn glycogen at a high rate, and if played long enough, can result in muscle glycogen depletion and fatigue. Performance could potentially be improved by muscle glycogen stores. However the benefit will likely vary based on the position you play. For example point guards in basketball or running backs in football are more likely to deplete muscle glycogen stores, and may benefit more from carbohydrate loading than other positions in these sports” This shows that soccer, basket ball, hockey and football are team sports where glycogen can be burned at a high rate, so performance could be improved by glycogen stores. It also shows that the position you play will play a part in how effective glycogen stores are. 

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